With their vibrant coloration and energetic personality, macaw cichlids have surged in popularity among freshwater aquarists. Their bright hues and bold behaviors light up any tank.
But these feisty New World cichlids require some specialized care to thrive in captivity. From ample tank space to robust water quality to a varied diet, macaws need more than the average community fish.
This in-depth guide will walk through everything you need to know about properly caring for these stunning cichlids.
Follow this advice to enjoy the brilliant colors and bold antics of macaw cichlids in your freshwater aquarium!
An Introduction to Macaw Cichlids
- 1 An Introduction to Macaw Cichlids
- 2 Aquarium Setup for Macaw Cichlids
- 3 Maintaining Proper Water Parameters for Macaw Cichlids
- 4 Feeding Your Macaw Cichlids
- 5 Macaw Cichlid Tankmates & Compatibility
- 6 Typical Macaw Cichlid Behavior & Personality
- 7 Breeding & Caring for Macaw Cichlid Fry
- 8 Typical Lifespan & Health Concerns
- 9 Frequently Asked Questions About Macaw Cichlids
- 10 Enjoying These Vibrant Cichlids in Your Freshwater Aquarium
Macaw cichlids, scientifically named Hypsophrys nicaraguensis, are native to the lakes and tributaries of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. These New World cichlids get their common name from their vibrant coloration resembling the hues of tropical macaws.
Some quick facts about macaw cichlids:
- Average Size: 6-8 inches
- Lifespan: 10-12 years with proper care
- pH Range: 7.0-8.5
- Temperature Range: 70-82°F
- Diet: Omnivorous, eats variety of live and prepared foods
- Temperament: Aggressive toward conspecifics, moderately aggressive to tankmates
- Care Level: Moderate to advanced – requires large tank
- Appearance: Bright yellows, greens, blues, reds, orange; black bars
Now that you know a bit about their background, let’s go over ideal tank setup and water parameters for these lively cichlids.
Aquarium Setup for Macaw Cichlids
Macaw cichlids are active, robust fish that need ample tank space to thrive. Here are the basic requirements for their habitat:
Minimum Tank Size
Due to their large adult size and aggressive nature, macaw cichlids require at least a 55 gallon aquarium. Bigger is always better – a 75 gallon or larger tank is ideal.
Leave plenty of open swimming space for these energetic fish. Using a fine sand substrate mimics their natural environment.
Incorporate several rock formations and cave-like structures made from stone or clay pots to provide sight breaks and territorial domains.
Driftwood branches and roots make good dither areas to help diffuse aggression. Live plants like Anubias and Java Fern can be added, but may get uprooted.
Macaw cichlids are big waste producers. Use robust external canister filtration rated for at least 2-3x the tank volume to maintain pristine water.
Powerful water flow helps mimic their native habitat. But avoid direct high-pressure outflow blasting the fish.
Heating & Lighting
Standard aquarium heaters are necessary to keep water within the 78-82°F temperature range macaws prefer.
Moderate aquarium lighting around 8 hours daily works well. Ensure lights don’t shine directly into tank and cause excess algae.
A sturdy lid or canopy prevents jumping and supports strong overhead lighting. Consider adding air stones for supplemental oxygenation.
Maintaining Proper Water Parameters for Macaw Cichlids
Macaw cichlids do best in clean, alkaline freshwater mimicking their natural environment:
- Temperature: 78-82°F
- pH: 7.4-8.2
- Hardness: Hard. 12-20 dGH range.
- Nitrogen cycle: Fully cycled tank is essential
Use crushed coral or aragonite substrate to naturally buffer pH and hardness. Perform 25-40% weekly water changes to control nitrate buildup. Add buffers as needed to maintain pH in the ideal range.
Test water parameters frequently to ensure ammonia and nitrites read zero, and nitrates stay below 40 ppm. Use chemical filtration like activated carbon to absorb organics.
Feeding Your Macaw Cichlids
Macaw cichlids are omnivores in the wild, foraging on worms, crustaceans, insects, and plant matter. Replicate this varied diet in your aquarium for optimal health:
- High-quality pellets should form the nutritional base of their diet. Look for formulas containing 30-40% protein. Offer 2-3 times daily.
- Supplement with frozen and live foods like bloodworms, brine shrimp, mosquito larvae, crickets, chopped seafood and greens. Help bring out their colors!
- Let them graze on algae wafers as well to round out their diet.
- Fast 1 day per week to aid digestion and prevent obesity.
Feed juveniles smaller but more frequent meals 4-6 times daily. Adults can eat larger portions 2-3 times per day. Provide only as much food as they can consume within 2-3 minutes, and remove any excess to keep water clean.
Macaw Cichlid Tankmates & Compatibility
Macaw cichlids are moderately aggressive fish that can be kept with select tankmates but may fight conspecifics. Here are some compatibility considerations:
Unless breeding, only keep one macaw cichlid per tank. They are fiercely territorial toward their own kind. Introduce tankmates first so they don’t view them as invaders.
Good Tankmate Options
Some suitable options include:
- Silver dollars
- Larger tetras like congo and emperor
- Medium-sized barbs like tiger and rose line sharks
- Plecostomus and clown loaches
- Larger gouramis like pearl and moonlight
Approach with caution:
- Smaller cichlids like convicts, firemouths, texas, etc.
- Aggressive barbs like red tailed sharks
- Catfish like pictus and upside down
- African cichlids like kenyi, auratus, etc.
Avoid Keeping Macaw Cichlids With:
- Small, delicate community fish they may eat
- Ornate fish with flowing fins like bettas and guppies
- Highly aggressive cichlids like flowerhorn or jaguar
- Shrimp, snails, or other organisms they see as prey
Research any potential tankmates thoroughly before introducing. Never add new fish right away. Quarantine, acclimate slowly, and observe closely when first mixing species. Have backup tank space available if aggression arises.
Typical Macaw Cichlid Behavior & Personality
Macaw cichlids exhibit behaviors typical of New World cichlids:
- Curious and intelligent – they interact with owners
- Energetic and fast-moving
- Moderate aggression toward tankmates
- High conspecific aggression – don’t mix more than one
- Territorial, especially when spawning
- Occasional substrate digging
- Prone to jumping – secure tank lids are key!
Expect males to intensify in color and display dominance behaviors like flaring gills, chasing, and frontal displays.
Interestingly, macaw cichlids are facultative mouthbrooders – they pick up eggs in their mouths when threatened but don’t carry developing fry.
Breeding & Caring for Macaw Cichlid Fry
While tricky, breeding macaw cichlids is possible in a dedicated tank. Here’s an overview:
- Condition mature breeding pair with live foods
- Setup 75+ gallon breeding tank with flat rocks for spawning sites
- Perform large water change to trigger spawning behavior
- Hundreds of small yellow eggs will be laid and fertilized
- Parents will pick up eggs if they feel threatened
- Move parents once eggs are laid
- Eggs hatch in 3-5 days. Free-swimming fry emerge in 6-8 days
- Feed infusoria then newly hatched brine shrimp
- Fry grow slowly – it takes 9+ months to reach maturity
- Juveniles are aggressive – separate once 1.5-2 inches long
Raising the tiny but pugnacious fry takes diligence. Maintain meticulous water quality and frequently feed microworms, brine shrimp nauplii, and finely crushed quality pellets. Prepare to separate aggressive juveniles as they grow.
Typical Lifespan & Health Concerns
In clean, well-maintained home aquariums, macaw cichlids generally live 8-12 years. Ensure they are ethically wild-caught or tank raised.
Some common health issues to watch for include:
- Ich (white spot disease)
- Fin rot or tail rot
- Bloating due to constipation
- Hole in the head disease (HEX)
- Malnutrition from inappropriate diet
Quarantine new specimens for 2-4 weeks and treat any illness before adding to your main tank. Maintain robust tank filtration and cleaning routines. Vary their diet and closely observe all fish to catch problems early.
Frequently Asked Questions About Macaw Cichlids
Let’s wrap up with answers to some commonly asked questions about caring for these colorful cichlids:
How big do macaw cichlids get?
On average, macaw cichlids reach 6-8 inches in length when fully grown. They need at least a 55 gallon tank long term to accommodate their large adult size.
Are macaw cichlids aggressive?
Macaws show moderate aggression toward tankmates but very high conspecific aggression. They should not be kept with other macaw cichlids unless breeding. Choose robust, fast tankmates.
What temperature do macaw cichlids need?
Macaw cichlids prefer warm tropical water in the 78-82°F range. Use a submersible aquarium heater to maintain water temperature.
Do macaw cichlids change color?
Yes! Their bright coloration intensifies when they feel threatened or are defending territory. Vibrant yellows and reds become even more dramatic during displays.
What do baby macaw cichlids eat?
Macaw cichlid fry can initially be fed infusoria and newly hatched brine shrimp. Quickly transition to fine pellet powder and baby foods like microworms. Give small, frequent feedings.
Enjoying These Vibrant Cichlids in Your Freshwater Aquarium
With ample space, robust filtration, clean water and a varied diet, macaw cichlids can thrive in home aquariums for years to come.
While they require some advanced care, their dazzling colors and energetic antics are well worth the extra effort! Just be sure to research their needs fully before acquiring one of these wet pets.
We hope this guide has provided you a great starting point for keeping healthy, happy macaw cichlids. Let us know if you have any other questions!